WHAT DOES IT MEAN TO BE ADMITTED TO THE UNITED STATES?
by Sarah K. Peterson Stensrud & Robert D. Aronson*
The United States immigration process consists of a
series of interrelated, separate steps. To be in the United States
legally, most foreign nationals focus on qualifying for non-immigration
status or qualifying for permanent resident status. What is often
overlooked is the application for admission to the United States,
which is a legal procedure that occurs when a foreign national crosses
the border to enter the United States.1
In a digital age, requirements for admission to the United States continue to change. More importantly, expanding technological capabilities greatly enhance the U.S. Government’s ability to monitor and track foreign nationals entering the United States. The stakes for successfully navigating the admissions process are high since a foreign national can be either delayed unduly at the port of entry or denied admission altogether, which then becomes part of a foreign national’s permanent immigration record.
This piece explores the application for admission a foreign national makes when trying to enter the United States: what admission means, who is involved in the admissions process, the Custom and Border Patrol’s (CBP) considerations when reviewing the application for admission, a foreign nationals rights during this process, grounds of inadmissibility, what documents a foreign national must present to be admitted to the United States, and the registration steps a foreign national must undertake either before being admitted to the United States or upon departure from the United States. This piece does not address the admission that occurs when a foreign national adjusts to permanent resident status. At the end of this piece we present our thoughts on how to maximize the chances that admission to the United States will go smoothly and successfully.
I. WHAT IS ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES?
Every person entering the United States, except U.S.
citizens, must make a formal application for admission.2
Most frequently, the admission application is the inspections and
entry process at the port of entry every time a foreign national
– either an immigrant or non-immigrant – enters the
When admitting a foreign national to the United States, a CBP officer makes determinations: 1) whether the foreign national’s purpose for entering the United States matches the visa classification; and 2) if there are any problems related to the foreign national’s character or background that disqualifies him from entering the United States.
Since 1996, our immigration laws have distinguished
between entry into the United States and admission to the United
States.3 Admission to the United States is more
than mere entry into the United States (i.e., physical presence
in this country); rather, admission gives a foreign national, after
inspection by the U.S. CBP Officer, the legal right to enter the
United States and remain eligible for future immigration benefits.4
II. WHAT U.S. GOVERNMENT AGENCIES ARE INVOLVED IN THE ADMISSIONS PROCESS?
There are two federal agencies involved in the admissions
process: The U.S. Department of State (DOS) and the U.S. Customs
and Border Protection (CBP). The DOS is the government agency responsible
for issuing visas5 through U.S. Consulates abroad.
The CBP, an agency of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS),
is the agency responsible for determining whether the purpose of
the foreign national’s specific trip corresponds to the general
authorization embedded in the visa. The CBP determines whether the
foreign national fulfills all legal requirements to be admitted
to the United States.6
III. WHEN DOES THE APPLICATION FOR ADMISSION BEGIN?
The admissions process starts when a CBP Officer inspects
a foreign national at a U.S. port of entry. The purpose of this
inspection is twofold: 1) to determine if the foreign national’s
trip corresponds with his visa; and 2) to determine if there are
any grounds that make the foreign national inadmissible –
i.e., not allowed entry to the United States. If a nonimmigrant
passes inspection, the CBP Officer admits him to the United States
and denotes the appropriate duration of stay on the I-94 card.7
A foreign national who is admitted to the United States remains
eligible for future immigration benefits. Conversely, a foreign
national who enters the United States without inspection by a CBP
Officer has not been properly admitted and is thereby subject to
detention, removal, and possible bars from entering the United States
in the future.
IV. WHAT ARE CBP’S OPTIONS IN DECIDING WHETHER TO ADMIT A FOREIGN NATIONAL?
A CBP Officer has the following options when adjudicating a foreign national’s application for admission:
Determine that all requirements for admission have been satisfied and admit the foreign applicant to the United States;
Refer the case to Secondary Inspection for further review;8
Defer a final decision on admission by paroling the foreign national into the United States and instructing the foreign national to appear at a Deferred Inspection hearing. (While the foreign national is physically in the United States in this parole status, he has not yet been legally admitted);
Deny admission to a foreign national. Airline carriers are liable
for the return cost of transportation in this situation which is
why airlines are quite thorough in inspecting travel documents at
the port of origination;9 or,
Place the foreign applicant in removal proceedings.10
V. WHAT RIGHTS AND RESPONSIBILITIES DOES A FOREIGN NATIONAL HAVE DURING THE ADMISSIONS PROCESS?
At the time of admission, the foreign national bears
the burden of convincing the CBP Officer that he “clearly
and beyond a doubt” qualifies for admission into the United
States.11 Moreover, a foreign national does not
have the right to an attorney during the admissions process. If
the foreign national encounters problems during the admissions process,
his only recourse is to request to speak with a supervisor whose
primary purpose is to assist travelers.12
If a foreign national is placed in a removal hearing,
he has “the privilege of being represented” by an attorney
at his own expense.13 So although a foreign national
may have an attorney present in a removal hearing, the U.S. government
will not pay for these legal services. In certain instances, if
a foreign national has a valid visa but was denied admission, a
foreign national can request a hearing before the immigration Court.
However, determinations made for visa waiver applications are final,
as are determinations made on cases involving fraud, willful misrepresentation,
and the lack of a valid immigrant visa for an intending immigrant.
VI. CONCEPT OF “GROUNDS OF INADMISSIBILITY.”
Perhaps the most confusing yet important determination made during the admissions process is whether the foreign national is “admissible” to the United States. Even if the intended purpose of his trip corresponds with the terms of his visa, the foreign national may still be denied admission if there is some abnormality that disqualifies him from entering the United States. Although the list of grounds for inadmissibility may vary depending on the type of visa status sought, the following is a list of the most common grounds:
Health-related grounds: this generally relates to contagious
diseases such as tuberculosis, AIDS/HIV, etc.14
Previous criminal activity: this generally relates to the commission
of various crimes, instances of multiple convictions, drug traffickers,
prostitution, trafficking, etc.15
Security-related grounds: this refers to terrorist activities, a
definition that has grown considerably since 9/11;16
Public Charge: this relates to instances in which a foreign national
appears unable to financially support himself in the United States;17
Work-Related Abnormalities: this refers to employment-based cases
which lack an approved labor certification application or lack the
proper credentialing for various healthcare workers; 18
Immigration Violators: this refers to instances in which a foreign
national may have previously violated his immigration status. Most
commonly this involves foreign nationals with substantial periods
of unlawful presence or foreign nationals trying to reenter the
United States prematurely following a final removal order; 19
Documentation Irregularities: this occurs when a foreign national
fails to hold a valid passport or any other immigration-related
Unlawful Voting. Because only United States Citizens are legally
authorized to vote, lawful permanent residents who vote in U.S.
elections are inadmissible.21
It is important to know that despite these grounds of inadmissibility,
waivers are available in certain instances.22
VII. NON-IMMIGRANT ADMISSIONS.
U.S. immigration laws presume that all non-immigrants
have immigrant intent, or the intent to remain permanently in the
United States.23 Yet most non-immigrant categories
require that the foreign national intend to stay temporarily in
the United States and that following this temporary stay, will depart
the United States.24 As such, the burden is on
the foreign national to convince both the Consular Officer (at the
time of application for a visa) and the CBP Officer (at the time
of application for admission at a port of entry) that he does not
intend to stay in the United States permanently. If the foreign
national fails to convince the Consular Officer and / or the CBP
Officer that he intends to remain in the United States on a temporary
basis, it is grounds to deny the visa and / or deny admission to
the United States.
VIII. WHAT DOCUMENTS MUST A FOREIGN NATIONAL PRESENT FOR ADMISSION TO THE UNITED STATES?
A foreign national must present several documents when applying for admission to the United States. Most frequently, these documents include a valid passport, a visa, and an I-94 Card.
A foreign national must have a valid passport.25
Foreign nationals entering in non-immigrant status must have a passport
valid for six months beyond the period of intended admission.26
Foreign nationals with immigrant visas must have a passport valid
for 60 days beyond the expiration of the immigrant visa, although
there are some exceptions to this general rule.27
If a passport is not valid for the required period, a CBP Officer
has the authority to either grant entry but shorten the length of
stay or deny entry altogether. In certain circumstances, if a foreign
national lacks the proper passport validity period upon entry, he
may make an application for waiver of Passport and / or Visa requirement
by completing a form and paying a fee.28
Periodically the U.S. Department of State publishes
a table of Foreign Passports Recognized for Extended Validity.29
If the passport is valid at the time of presentation, the United
States considers the passports of nationals from these listed countries
automatically valid for six months beyond the actual expiration
In the past, citizens of the United States, the Caribbean,
Bermuda, Panama, Mexico and Canada traveling between these countries
were not required to present a passport to be admitted to the United
States. However, the United States Department of State recently
implemented the Western Hemisphere Travel Initiative (WHTI) which
changes long-standing travel requirements for travelers seeking
admission to the United States from the Americas, the Caribbean,
and Bermuda. Starting January 23, 2007, citizen travelers from the
Caribbean, Bermuda, Panama, Mexico and Canada seeking entry into
the United States via air or sea must produce a passport to be admitted
to the United States.31 Even U.S. citizens must
present valid passports when returning from trips abroad.32
On January 1, 2008, this passport requirement extends to all entries
A visa is a stamp issued by a United States Consular Office abroad
and placed in a foreign national’s passport. A visa signifies
that a foreign national is eligible to apply for admission to enter
the United States for a specific purpose and specific period. A
visa does not automatically guarantee that a foreign national will
be admitted to the United States. Rather, the dates listed on the
visa is the period during which the foreign national may use the
visa to make an application for admission to the United States.34
To obtain a visa, a foreign national must make an appointment
at a U.S. Consulate abroad. Each Consulate follows unique visa issuance
procedures. Generally these procedures require a foreign national
to appear for an interview, give fingerprints, take a digital photo,
and pay a fee. A foreign national should check the U.S. Department
of State website to obtain details on a specific Consulate’s
Nationals of certain participating countries qualify for the Visa
Waiver Program (VWP).36 Nationals of VWP countries37
are not required to obtain a visa to apply for admission to the
United States, or other participating countries, if they intend
to enter the participating country for less than 90 days for business
or pleasure and have a round-trip airline ticket.38
However, Congress passed the USA-PATRIOT Act that requires all VWP
travelers have a machine-readable passport.39
If a passport does not conform to United States machine-readable
requirements, nationals of participating VWP countries may be required
to obtain a visa. To ensure that a VWP traveler remains visa exempt,
he should always confirm with the passport-issuing authority in
his country to confirm that he possesses a machine-readable passport.
A foreign national who has an expired visa stamp in
a valid passport may be able to travel to a “contiguous territory”
for 30 days or less and return to the United States without first
obtaining a new visa prior to re-entry. To re-enter the United States,
the foreign national must present a valid passport, I-94 card, and
expired visa.40 Nationals of Iran, Syria, Libya,
Sudan, North Korea, or Cuba are ineligible for this benefit and
must obtain a valid visa before applying for admission to the United
States. This benefit becomes void if, while outside of the United
States, the foreign national applied for a visa but was denied.41
Airlines and CBP Officers at ports of entry provide all foreign nations, except U.S. Permanent Residents, the appropriate form to complete for admission to the United States. This form is the I-94, Nonimmigrant Visa Waiver Arrival / Departure Form (I-94W for VWP travelers). The I-94 requests general data and an address at which the foreign national will stay while in the United States. It is the foreign national’s obligation to notify the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Service (USCIS) within 10 days of any change in address by submitting form AR-11 to the USCIS.
For air and sea entry, the I-94 card is for single
entry.42 For land entrants, the I-94 card is valid
for multiple entries.43 The I-94 card is significant
in that it is the foreign nationals proof of legal eligibility to
remain in the United States. A foreign national should retain a
copy of all I-94 cards issued to him.
IX. HOW DO I KNOW IF I HAVE BEEN LAWFULLY ADMITTED?
For non-immigrants, if the CBP Officer is convinced, after inspection, of the legitimate nature of the application for admission, the CBP Officer will notate the appropriate immigration status on the I-94 card, along with the duration of stay granted to the foreign national. The CBP Officer will staple the I-94 card in the foreign nationals passport. It is important that the immigration status and period of stay noted on the I-94 match the data on the corresponding visa because the I-94 card becomes the foreign nationals proof of legal eligibility to remain in the United States (i.e., it shows that a foreign national was properly admitted to the United States).
Every lawful permanent resident (LPR) must be admitted into the United States. If the CBP Officer is convinced, after inspection, that a LPR is admissible, he will be admitted into the United States. If the CBP Officer deems a LPR is inadmissible, the CBP Officer will defer a LPR to secondary inspection or parole the LPR into the United States for a deferred inspection hearing.
X. REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS FOR ADMISSION TO AND EXIT FROM THE UNITED STATES.
On January 5, 2004, the United States Department of Homeland Security
implemented US-VISIT.44 This is a data-collection
program aimed at eliminating immigration fraud. US-VISIT currently
applies to all non-immigrant foreign visitors between the age of
14 and 79, although there are a few exemptions.45
US-VISIT currently exists at 115 airports, 15 seaports, and in secondary
inspection areas of 154 land ports.
US-VISIT begins when a foreign national applies for a visa at a United States Consular Office abroad. Before receiving a visa, a foreign national provides biometric information, including two digital finger scans and a digital photograph. This information is embedded in the visa so that when the foreign national applies for admission at a United States port of entry, new biometric information is collected and matched with the biometric information embedded in the visa. This allows the CBP Officer at the port of entry to confirm the person applying for admission is the same person who applied for the visa.
US-VISIT recently implemented a pilot program for taking
biometrics information at ports of exit. Currently, twelve airports
have US-VISIT exit kiosks.46 These US-VISIT exit
kiosks scan a foreign nationals passport, take a finger scan of
the left and right index fingers, take a digital photograph, and
issue a receipt confirmation for a foreign national to present to
the airline before boarding. Ultimately the Department of Homeland
Security will implement this US-VISIT exit procedure at all airports.
If a foreign national is flying out of the United States
from one of the US-VISIT exit airports, he should register at the
US-VISIT kiosk. Although the DHS has stated that the US-VISIT exit
program is voluntary, on a practical level, failure to register
prevents DHS from confirming whether and when a foreign national
left the United States. DHS might then assume that a foreign national
never left or overstayed the terms of her immigrant status. Thus,
if a foreign national is departing the United States from one of
the pilot airports with US-VISIT exit kiosks, he should find the
US-VISIT Kiosk and register. If a foreign national is unable to
register, he should retain as much supporting documentation as possible
to present at re-entry to document when and where he left the United
States. Failure to register may result in a violation of the terms
of admission or ineligibility to obtain a visa in the future.47
Currently the following categories of foreign national
visitors are exempt from US-VISIT48 :
Visitors admitted on an A-1, A-2, C-3, G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, NATO-1, NATO-2, NATO-3, NATO-4, NATO-5, or NATO-6 visa;
Children under the age of 14 & Persons over the age of 79;
Classes of visitors the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security jointly determine shall be exempt;
A foreign national visitor the Secretary of State and the Secretary of Homeland Security or the Director of Central Intelligence Agency jointly determine shall be exempt;
Taiwan officials who hold E-1 visas and members of their immediate families who hold E-1 visas;
United States Citizens;
United States Legal Permanent Residents;
There are special requirements for Canadian49
and Mexican50 citizens.
On July 27, 2006, the United States Department of Homeland Security
released proposed regulations that, if enacted, will expand the
US-VISIT requirement to almost all foreign visitors, including U.S.
Legal Permanent Residents.51 As of the date of
this article’s publication, these proposed regulations have
not yet been enacted into law.
National Security Entry / Exit System (NSEERS)
The National Security Entry / Exit Systems, or NSEERS, is a data
collection program required of certain foreign nationals.52
Although DHS can impose NSEERS on anyone, DHS currently only requires
certain nationals of Iran, Iraq, Libya, Sudan, and Syria to register
upon their first entry into the United States.53
A foreign national who registers with NSEERS receives a Fingerprint
Identification Number, or FIN, notation on his I-94 Card and a notation
of Special Registrant (SR). If a foreign national complies with
NSEERS upon entry to the United States, he must also do it upon
exit of the United States. Finally, if a foreign national complies
with NSEERS, it is not necessary to also do US-VISIT. However, compliance
with US-VISIT does not fulfill NSEERS requirements.
XI. HELPFUL TIPS FOR THE ADMISSION PROCESS
Each year, thousands of foreign applicants are turned away at the border of the United States and countless more are delayed unduly during the admissions process. The following are tips to make the admissions process go smoothly and quickly:
Understand The Immigration Status You Are Requesting. Each non-immigrant visa authorizes specific activities in the United States, such as specific work authorization, student status, casual visits, etc. Understand the type of visa you possess and make sure that you can prove that your specific reason for coming to the United States matches the visa or authorization presented to the CBP Officer.
Understand That it is Your Responsibility to Persuade the CBP Officer. The burden is on the foreign applicant to establish eligibility for admission. The CBP Officer need not prove why you are inadmissible.
Check Your Documents. You need certain documents to present yourself for admission to this country – i.e., a valid passport, a valid visa (unless visa exempt), and possibly an approved petition. Make sure that your documents are in order.
Check your I-94 Card. Once satisfied with your application, the CBP Officer will issue a completed I-94 card to you (unless you are a lawful permanent resident). The I-94 card establishes the basic terms and conditions of your lawful non-immigrant status in the United States. Mistakes happen, so check over the spelling of your name, the dates of your authorized stay, your visa status, etc. It is far easier to correct mistakes at the port of entry rather than trying to fix at a later date.
Be Professional and Courteous. Most CBP Officers are not interested in setting traps for the unwary. It is worthwhile to be polite in your communications with the CBP Officers since the initial admission decision is discretionary. If your papers are in order, have confidence in your legitimate reason for admission to the United States.
If problems develop, ask to speak with a Supervisor. If things get off-track for whatever reason, ask to see the supervisor. The supervisor’s main responsibility is to help travelers clear the CBP inspection. Oftentimes Supervisors know the law to a greater degree than the initial CBP Officer.
Lawful admission to the United States is an important, and somewhat complex step in every foreign national’s travel to the United States. Because a foreign national does not have legal counsel present at the time of admission, it is always prudent to check with immigration counsel well in advance of leaving the United States to ensure full compliance with admissions requirements upon entry.
* Sarah K. Peterson Stensrud is an Associate
Attorney with Aronson & Associates, P.A., dealing largely in
employment-based immigration. She holds her J.D. Cum Laude from
the University of Minnesota Law School and is finishing a Master
in Public Policy from the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public
Robert D. Aronson is the Principal
Attorney at Aronson & Associates, P.A., practicing in the area
of employment-based immigration with a focus on International Physicians,
biomedical researchers, and healthcare workers. Mr. Aronson is a
graduate of the Indiana University School of Law, Cum Laude, and
was a Fulbright Fellow at the law schools of Harvard University
and Moscow State University.
The information in this article is
of a general nature and is provided as a courtesy. It should not
be relied on as legal advice for specific cases. Receiving or reading
this article does not create an attorney-client relationship between
the reader(s) and Aronson & Associates, P.A. or between the
authors and foreign national. As the information herein presented
should make amply clear, sound immigration advice can only be provided
after careful review of a potential client’s facts and the
creation of a formal attorney-client relationship.
Copyright © by the authors. All
1. A foreign
national is also formally admitted to the United States when the
USCIS approves an application for permanent resident status for
the foreign national. Matter of Rosas, 22 I&N Dec. 616 (BIA
2. INA § 235(a)(3); 8 C.F.R. §
3. Illegal immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub.L. 104-208 (IIRIRA) (Sept. 30, 1996).
4. INA §235; 8 C.F.R. § 235.
5. A visa is a travel document that authorizes
a foreign national to travel to the United States to present herself
for lawful admission.
6. Two other immigration agencies fall under
DHS’s umbrella: The U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement
(ICE), responsible for enforcing U.S. Immigration Laws, and U.S.
Citizenship and Im migration Services (USCIS), responsible for granting
7. Certain Canadian and Mexican Citizens
who are visiting the U.S. are exempt from receiving an I-94 Card.
See, 8 C.F.R. 235.1(f). Moreover, even though permanent residents
must be admitted they do not receive I-94 cards.
8. Secondary Inspection is a more extensive
determination of admissibility normally conducted in a private room
at the port of entry.
9. INA § 235(b)(1)(A)(i).
10. Procedurally, the DHS must officially
“charge” the foreign national by issuing a “Notice
to Appear.” The foreign national then appears before an Immigration
Judge and can appeal the decision to the Board of Immigration Appeals.
For more information, see Immigration Court Process in the United
States, U.S. Department of Justice, Executive Office for Immigration
Review, News Release, April 28, 1005, at http://www.usdoj.gov/eoir/press/05/ImmigrationCourtProcess2005.htm,
last visited September 27, 2006.
11. 8 C.F.R. § 1240.8(b). The United
States Supreme Court held that a foreign national who “seeks
admission to this country may not do so under any claim of right.
Admission of aliens to the United States is a privilege granted
by the sovereign United States Government only upon such terms as
[it] shall prescribe.” United States ex rel. Knauff v. Shaughnessy,
338 U.S. 537, 70 S. Ct. 309 (1950).
last visited September 27, 2006.
13. INA § 292.
14. INA § 212(a)(1).
15. INA § 212(a)(2).
16. INA § 212(a)(3).
17. INA § 212(a)(4).
18. INA § 212(a)(5).
19. INA § 212(a)(6).
20. INA § 212(a)(7).
21. INA § 212(a)(10).
22. INA § 212(d).
23. INA § 214(b).
24. Certain non-immigrant categories, such
as H and L, allow dual intent. This means that foreign nationals
seeking admission in H or L nonimmigrant status need not convince
the Consular Officer and / or CBP officer that they have non-immigrant
intent, or the intend to remain in the United States for a finite
and temporary period. INA § 214(b).
25. Certain Canadian Citizens are exempt
from this requirement. See, 8 C.F.R. § 212.1(a)(1).
26. INA § 212(a)(7)(B)(i).
27. INA § 212(a)(7)(A); 8 C.F.R. §
28. Form I-193 with a $265 filing fee.
See, 8 C.F.R. § 211.2(b).
29. See, Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) 41.104
Exhibit 1, for a current list of countries.
31. See, http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html,
last visited September 27, 2006. Although the U.S. CBP may accept
other secure, accepted documentation that establishes the bearers’
nationality and identity, the details regarding acceptable documentation
32. The only exception is for trips made
to the U.S. Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico.
http://travel.state.gov/travel/cbpmc/cbpmc_2223.html, last visited
September 27, 2006.
34. 22 C.F.R. § 41.112(a).
35. See, http://usembassy.state.gov/,
last visited September 27, 2006.
36. INA §217(a); 8 C.F.R. §217.2.
37. At time of publication, the following
27 countries are part of the visa waiver program with the United
States: Andorra, Iceland, Norway, Australia, Ireland, Portugal,
Austria, Italy, San Marino, Belgium, Japan, Singapore, Brunei, Liechtenstein,
Slovenia, Denmark, Luxembourg, Spain, Finland, Monaco, Sweden, France,
the Netherlands, Switzerland, Germany, New Zealand, and the United
Kingdom. See, http://www.travel.state.gov/visa/temp/without/without_1990.html#2,
last visited September 27, 2006.
38. INA §217(a); 8 C.F.R. §217.2.
39. A machine-readable passport contains
two lines of data on the biographical page, similar to a bar code.
For an example of a machine-readable passport, see, http://www.travel.state.gov/visa/temp/without/without_1990.html#4,
last visited September 27, 2006.
40. 22 C.F.R. § 41.112(d).
41. U.S. Consulates abroad notate a visa
denial on the back page of a passport, using indelible ink. See,
March 14, 2002 cable by Secretary of State Colin Powell, AILA infonet
Doc. No. 02040432.
42. 8 C.F.R. §235.1(f)(1)
44. Illegal Immigration Reform and Immigrant
Responsibility Act of 1996, Pub. L. No. 104-208, §110 (IIRAIRA);
INS Data Management Improvement Act, P.L. 106-215 (DMIA).
45. For a list of exemptions, see, http://www.dhs.gov/dhspublic/interapp/editorial/editorial_0527.xml,
last visited September 27, 2006.
46. At time of publication, these airports
include: Baltimore/Washington International; Chicago O’Hare
International; Dallas/Fort Worth International; Denver International;
Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County International; Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood
International; Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International; Luis Muñoz
Marin International in San Juan, Puerto Rico; Newark Liberty International;
Philadelphia International; San Francisco International; Seattle-Tacoma
47. 8 C.F.R. §215.8(b).
48. 8 C.F.R. 235.1(d)(1)(iv).
last visited September 27, 2006.
last visited September 27, 2006.
51. See, http://a257.g.akamaitech.net/7/257/2422/01jan20061800/edocket.access.gpo.gov/2006/E6-11993.htm,
last visited September 27, 2006.
52. 8 C.F.R. § 264.1(f)(1).
last visited September 27, 2006.